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These scaly red patches are the hallmarks of a common condition called psoriasis. It's a disease involving immune cells. This was discovered by chance when in the late 1970s scientists noticed that the immunosuppressive drugs cyclosporine could improve the condition.

The skin has three primary tissue segments. The epidermis is composed mainly of specialized cells called keratinocytes. These originate from a single layer of basal keratinocytes, which divide continuously and give rise to cells that migrate towards the skin's surface. During this process, they progressively differentiate into corneocytes, which form a protective barrier.

Below the epidermis is the dermis. Here cells called fibroblasts secrete fibers that form a dense extracellular matrix. This layer also contains hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, and blood capillaries as well as lymphatic vessels. These are a primary conduit for immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and T-cells.

Dendritic cells can capture foreign antigen and present it to T-cells. T-cells are immune effector cells, they can broadly be divided into cytotoxic T-cells, which directly kill infected cells, and T-helper cells that play a vital role in orchestrating overall immune responses.

In many ways, the immune pathways that become activated in psoriasis are amplifications of the immune activity of the healthy skin. However, the trigger for this inflammatory disease is unknown. Current models propose that dendritic cells sense stressed keratinocytes and invading microorganisms and start to respond by producing signaling molecules known as cytokines. These activated T-cells and other immune cells, which in turn produce their cytokines. Those signals stimulate keratinocytes to proliferate and to secrete further mediators and create a vicious cycle of inflammatory responses. Overall, this results in an accumulation of immune cells and the formation of a thickened inflamed epidermis.

Several biologic drugs have been developed to target inflammatory mediators in psoriasis. The most widely used agents for severe psoriasis dampened down cytokine TNF alpha. But that treatment doesn't work for everyone. Up to a third of patients ultimately do not respond.

However, in the past decade insights into T-cell biology have uncovered some promising new drug targets. Traditionally T-helper cells have been classified into two subsets:

  1. T-helper-one cells, which are pro-inflammatory;
  2. T-helper-two cells, which are anti-inflammatory.

However, the picture has become much more complicated with the identification of many other subsets. Which subset a T-helper cell will belong to depends on the cytokines it encounters when it first interacts with a dendritic cell. Each subset can then be told apart because they secrete characteristic cytokines. In the context of psoriasis and inflammation, T-helper-17 cells have attracted particular attention. They're part of a group known as type-17 cells because they produce the cytokine IL-17. This cytokine can promote chronic inflammation and tissue destruction.

In psoriasis, dendritic cells produce two important cytokines IL-12 and IL-23.  IL-12 induces the differentiation of T-helper-one cells, which produce the cytokines interferon gamma and TNF alpha. IL-23 in turn induces T-helper -17 cells, which make IL-17 and other pro-inflammatory cytokines.

Scientists are now developing some biologic drugs that are targeted at IL-17 and other elements of the IL-17 signaling cascade. Interesting targets include IL-23 - a shared subunit of both IL-12 and IL-23, the different isoforms of IL-17 and the IL-17 receptor as well as a protein that's required for the production of IL-17. As IL-17 functions mainly locally in the skin and mucosal tissues, such agents may have fewer side-effects than current drugs, which act systemically and they might be effective in patients, who don't respond to therapies that target TNF alpha. The first of these agents have already been approved for psoriasis, and others have shown promising results in clinical trials. Many of these are also in development for other inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, and colitis, making the IL-17 cascade one of the hottest targets for inflammatory diseases.

Some men will experience a whole lot of stress and depression in their life. If you want to start a family, and you are planning to have kids, being is not the best option for you. Stress can decrease the production of sperm volume. By doing so, you will have such a low sperm count in your penis, and you might be having troubles with fertilization. Luckily, you can always treat that condition and increase the amount of your sperm production. If you want to know how you better stick with us and read the article.

Take Those Drugs

Believe it or not, taking sperm boosting products would be the most advanced methods for treating low sperm count. Those products are specially made to increase the amount of sperm count in such a significant way. They are designed with a particular formula that will combat whatever it is that caused your low production of sperm. It can usually be your hormonal imbalance in your body or even stress. That is why you should try those products whether it is in the form of pills, patches, creams, or something that we haven’t seen before.

Consider Exercising More

The second most advanced method of sperm volume enhancement would be by doing plenty of exercises. You might not believe that it is, but there is a reliable connection between your sperm volume or count and working out. By working out, your body will produce more testosterone. The higher your testosterone level is, the higher possibility that you will have a greater amount of sperm count. That is because testosterone is highly critical in the production of sperm. That is why you will have to exercise more if you want to have a higher sperm count.

Eat Well and Proper

Another way of increasing the sperm count in your body would be by eating a particular type of diet. There is a good diet that is aimed at the increasing the amount of sperm in your body. Such menu will include the consumption of high protein food to increase the amount of testosterone in your body. Eating high protein food means that you also need to eat healthy protein that does not have plenty of fat. You can include food like tofu, soybean, chicken meat and also seafood in your diet to increase your sperm count.

Is it? Yes, it is possible. Many, if not most men dream about the bigger member. Don't worry. You are not alone. We have all heard that size doesn't matter. However, if someone is insecure about their length, it can affect their life negatively. Indeed, if you are worried about your penis size, that can make you vulnerable in the bedroom, and also in other aspects of your life.

Worry not. Here, we will tell you the natural way to enlarge your penis. The first three will not require any tool. The second three will need some device. Here they are:

Jelqing

Jelqing is simple yet effective. How to do:

  1. Make an OK-sign with your thumb and index finger.
  2. With the member is in semi erect state, move the OK sign from the bottom to the top. Do this slowly.

This will not only enhance the blood flow in your manhood but also enlarge your girth and length. And that's it. Simple, right?

Stretching

This is another great penis exercise for beginners. Have you ever see the photos of Thailand women? They expand their necks from an early age. This same rule refers to member stretching.

How to do:

  1. Grip your penis behind the glans.
  2. Gently pull downward.
  3. Hold the stretch for about 30 seconds.
  4. Repeat in different directions (right, left, up and straight up).

Kegels

This exercise is not meant to enlarge penis directly. However, doing Kegels will give you stronger, harder and longer lasting erections. Indeed, the penis enlargement is an indirect benefit from Kegels. Why? Because Kegels improves the blood flow to the penis.

Penis extending

Penis extending

As with the penis pumping, this exercise will require a tool. In this case, a penis extender. The penis extenders also work on the stretching principle. This time, with the help of a mechanical device to hold the stretch for an extended period.

Some of the most popular penis extenders are:

  • Male Edge extender;
  • JES extender;
  • X4 Labs extender;
  • Penis Pal.

Penis pumping

To do this, you will need a penis pump. Penis pumps have various designs and features. The main rules are idem. You put the pump over your manhood, and it makes a fractional vacuum inside the tube. The reduced pressure causes the penis tissues to stretch. The most efficient pumps are:

  • Phalossan;
  • Penomet;
  • Bathmate;
  • Passion pump.

Penis hangers

This is another penis stretching exercise. To do it you will need to fasten the tool and suspend a load. This will make strain on the member.

One of the most popular tools is the LG Hanger. According to testing, it has proven that it stands outs in comfort. As well as giving a great result.